Each file and folder located in your account has certain permissions assigned. They define who is authorized to write, read or execute this file.
Once it is created in your cPanel, default permissions are assigned. In most cases there is no need to change them, but certain installations or updates may require a file or folder permissions change.
There are three types of access:
- read: file can be only read
- write: file can be edited
- execute: file can be executed as program
There are three types of user groups, these access types can be applied to:
- owner: the owner of the file
- group: other files which are in the same folder or group
- world: anyone else
The access level is defined in numbers:
- 0 - no access to the file
- 1 - execute only
- 2 - write only
- 3 - write and execute
- 4 - read only
- 5 - read and execute
- 6 - read and write
- 7 - read, write and execute (full permissions)
The following permissions need to be set in order for your files to be displayed properly in the browser:
- For all HTML and image files the permissions have to be set to 644 (or 0644). They will be readable by all the user groups, but writable by user only. These permissions are set automatically when the file is created.
- Folders the permissions have to be set to 755 (or 0755). The folders will be readable and executed by others, but writable by user only. These permissions are set automatically when the folder is created.
- For all CGI files the permissions have to be set to 755 (or 0755). The files will be readable and executed by others, but writable by user only. These permissions are NOT set automatically once the file is created, you should adjust them manually.
It is possible to view file/folder permissions either via File Manager in cPanel or SSH command line.
cPanel File Manager
1. Log into your cPanel, navigate to Files section and click File Manager icon:
2. Check-mark Document Root for: option and choose the domain you wish to access directory for. Click onGo then:
3. You will be able to see currently assigned permissions in the right-hand column called Perms.
4. To edit the current permissions for certain file/folder, right-click on it and choose Change Permissions. Related window will pop-up:
5. Set required permissions for each user group and save the changes. It is also possible to use the same button in the File Manager upper-bar menu: